Authors: Fumiomi Takeda, Wei Q. Yang, Changying Li, Andris Freivalds, Kiseok Sung, Rui Xu, Bo Hu, Jeffrey Williamson and Steven Sargen
 
Journal Title: Agronomy
 
ISSN: 2073-4395 (Online)
 
Publisher: MDPI AG
 
Abstract
 
The growth of the blueberry industry in the past three decades has been remarkably robust. However, a labor shortage for hand harvesting, increasingly higher labor costs, and low harvest efficiencies are becoming bottlenecks for sustainable development of the fresh market blueberry production. In this study, we evaluated semi-mechanical harvesting systems consisting of a harvest-aid platform with soft fruit catching surfaces that collected the fruit detached by portable, hand-held, pneumatic shakers. The softer fruit catching surfaces were not glued to the hard sub-surfaces of the harvest-aid platform, but suspended over them. Also, the ergonomic aspect of operating powered harvesting equipment was determined. The pneumatic shakers removed 3.5 to 15 times more fruit (g/min) than by hand. Soft fruit catching surfaces reduced impact force and bruise damage. Fruit firmness was higher in fruit harvested by hand compared to that by pneumatic shakers in some cultivars. The bruise area was less than 8% in fruit harvested by hand and with semi-mechanical harvesting system. The percentage of blue, packable fruit harvested by pneumatic shakers comprised as much as 90% of the total, but less than that of hand-harvested fruit.
 
The ergonomic analysis by electromyography showed that muscle strain in the back, shoulders, and forearms was low in workers operating the light-weight, pneumatic shakers that were tethered to the platform with a tool balancer. The new harvesting method can reduce the labor requirement to about 100 hour/hectare/year and help to mitigate the rising labor cost and shortage of workers for harvesting fresh-market quality blueberries.
 
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
 

Photo: Harvesting blueberries with a semi-mechanical harvest-assist system consisting of hand-held pneumatic shakers to detach fruit and platforms to collect detached fruit. The frame is manually pulled/pushed over plants and the fruit catching platforms are pulled out while positioning the frame over the plants to be harvested and pushed towards each other to seal around the base of blueberry plants. Shown here are two workers harvesting blueberries with hand-held shakers. The yellow hoses carry pressurized air from a compressor to shakers. Yellow fruit lugs are positioned below the catching surface. The inclined catching surface diverted detached fruit into lugs. (credits: Fumiomi Takeda, Wei Q. Yang, Changying Li, Andris Freivalds, Kiseok Sung, Rui Xu, Bo Hu, Jeffrey Williamson and Steven Sargen)

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